Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease and one of the main causes of medical consultation. It is the most important cause of disability in elderly people. It is a degenerative disease resulting from changes in the mechanical properties of cartilage and affects other joint structures such as the subchondral bone, joint capsule and synovial membrane. Although there is no clear cause for the onset of osteoarthritis, various factors such as overweight have been suggested. It triggers inflammatory phenomena, which often cause osteoarthritis to produce symptoms such as pain and impairment of the mobility and normal functioning of the joint, which leads to progressive disability in everyday activities.
Initial treatment should focus on weight reduction and pain control medication. Viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid and biological therapies such as treatment with platelet growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells may slow and modify the disease progression.
Surgery (total knee prosthesis) is indicated if pain and functional limitation persist despite conservative treatment, with excellent results.